Author ORCID Identifier 0000-0001-8956-7166

Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Statistics, Environmental sciences (social aspects, Social sciences

Publication Details

Andriollo, E., Caimo, A., Secco, L., & Pisani, E. (2021). “Collaborations in Environmental Initiatives for an Effective Adaptive Governance of Social–Ecological Systems: What Existing Literature Suggests.” Sustainability, 13(15), 8276. [Open access]


Moving from the scientific literature on evaluation of environmental projects and programs, this study identifies how and under which conditions collaborations are considered effective for adaptive gover- nance of SES. The method adopted is a systematic literature review based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of 56 articles selected through specific queries on the SCOPUS database and published from 2004 to 2020. Results of the quantitative analysis underline conditions able to make collaborations effective for adaptive governance of SES: the importance of transdisciplinary research tackling both environmental and social sciences, the perceived urgency of stakeholders to tackle environmental challenges and consequently their inclusion in projects, the valorisation of different typologies of knowledge, and the adaptation to local culture and lifestyle. Results of the qualitative analysis provides specific recommendations for collaborations to be effective related to communication, equity, foresight, and respect, which need to be further strengthened. Multiplicity in visions and approaches should not be seen as a limit but as a resource able to stimulate creativity in social arrangements and environmental practices, making collaborations instrumental for the effectiveness of adaptive governance.