Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


3. MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, Physiology, Endocrinology and metabolism, Sport and fitness sciences

Publication Details

Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, Aug;37(4):599-609, 2012.



Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (V(T)), 80% V(T), and mid-point between V(T) and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly faster (p < 0.05) post-SE and post-UE compared with baseline at 50% V(T) (17.3 ± 10.7 s and 17.5 ± 5.9 s vs. 29.9 ± 10.7 s), 80% V(T) (18.9 ± 4.7 and 20.9 ± 8.4 vs. 34.3 ± 12.7s), and 50% Δ (20.4 ± 8.2 s and 20.2 ± 6.0 s vs. 27.6 ± 3.7 s). SE also induced faster heart rate kinetics at all 3 intensities and a larger increase in CO at 30 s in relation to 240 s at 80% V(T); and these responses were maintained post-UE. Unsupervised exercise maintained benefits in oxygen uptake kinetics obtained during a supervised exercise in subjects with diabetes, and these benefits were associated with a faster dynamic response of heart rate after training.