Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence



Publication Details

Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2120;


Food insecurity and other nutritional risks in infancy pose a lifelong risk to wellbeing; however, their effect on diet quality in Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino (NHPIF) infants in Hawai‘i is unknown. In this cross-sectional analysis, the association between various indicators of food security and NHPIF infant diet quality were investigated in 70 NHPIF infants aged 3–12 months residing on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. The dietary assessments of the infants were collected using a mobile food recordTM. Foods consumed across four days were categorized into seven food groups. Indicators for food security were examined through an adapted infant food security index and other indicators. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, independent sample t-tests, multinomial logistic regression, and linear regression models. In models adjusting for age and sex, infants defined as food insecure by the adapted index were found to consume foods from more food groups and consume flesh foods on a greater proportion of days. Of the indicators examined, the adapted index was shown to be the best indicator for food group consumption. Further work is needed on a more representative sample of NHPIF infants to determine the impact that food security has on nutritional status and other indicators of health.