Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol.33, 2013


Aviation has for many years been one of the leading industries in addressing human and organisational factors (HOF) within its different sectors – flight operations, air traffic control, ground operations, maintenance, etc. In particular aviation has led the way in mandating a range of measures that address HOF issues – reporting systems, shift-handover procedures, etc (e.g. UK CAA, 2003). A key element of the regulation has been the mandating of initial and continuation training in HOF for virtually all personnel working in aviation maintenance. By contrast the development of practice and regulation of risk and safety management in aviation has lagged behind process (Gambetti et al., 2012) and power (Leva et al., 2012). industries ICAO published its requirements for Safety Management in 2009 (ICAO, 2009) and these are still being translated into regulations by local aviation authorities. For example the EASA regulations require implementation of Safety Management Systems (SMS) in airlines by 2013. As a consequence of this historical sequence – the development of HOF regulations prior to safety management regulations – organisations are facing the challenge of integrating two programmes with related objectives developed to meet the requirements of different regulations. HOF training in aviation maintenance, in the European context, normally comprises of a two day initial training classroom based workshop supplemented by a one-day continuation training workshop every 2 years. The continuation training typically comprises a refresher of key HOF concepts and information about company specific challenges. E-learning and blended learning are sometimes used for continuation training, but their acceptance by the local aviation authorities is variable. This paper reports an initiative to integrate HOF continuation training within a risk management context in an aviation maintenance company.