Document Type



1.4 CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Food and beverages

Publication Details,distinct%20strains%20of%20Hafnia%20paralvei%20.

McCarthy WP, Srinivas M, Danaher M, Connor CO, Callaghan TFO, van Sinderen D, Kenny J, Tobin JT. Isolation and identification of chlorate-reducing Hafnia sp. from milk. Microbiology (Reading). 2023 Jul;169(7).


Chlorate has become a concern in the food and beverage sector, related to chlorine sanitizers in industrial food production and water treatment. It is of particular concern to regulatory bodies due to the negative health effects of chlorate exposure. This study investigated the fate of chlorate in raw milk and isolated bacterial strains of interest responsible for chlorate breakdown. Unpasteurized milk was demonstrated to have a chlorate-reducing capacity, breaking down enriched chlorate to undetectable levels in 11 days. Further enrichment and isolation using conditions specific to chlorate-reducing bacteria successfully isolated three distinct strains of Hafnia paralvei . Chlorate-reducing bacteria were observed to grow in a chlorate-enriched medium with lactate as an electron donor. All isolated strains were demonstrated to reduce chlorate in liquid medium; however, the exact mechanism of chlorate degradation was not definitively identified in this study.



Teagasc Walsh Scholarship award (2017064) funded by Teagasc Agriculture and Food Development Authority, and received support from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) through APC Microbiome Ireland.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.