Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


1.3 PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Optics, Electrical and electronic engineering

Publication Details

Photonics Research


A black phosphorus (BP) functionalized optical fiber sensor based on a microfiber coil resonator (MCR) for Pb2+ ion detection in an aquatic environment is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The MCR-BP sensor is manufactured by winding a tapered microfiber on a hollow rod composed of a low-refractive-index polycarbonate (PC) resin with the BP deposited on the internal wall of the rod. Based on the propagation properties of the MCR, the chemical interaction between the Pb2+ ions and the BP alters the refractive index of the ambient environment and thus results in a detectable shift in the transmission spectrum. The resonance wavelength moves towards longer wavelengths with an increasing concentration of Pb2+ ions, and the sensor has an ultra-high detection resolution of 0.0285 ppb (parts per billion). The temperature dependence is 106.95 pm/°C due to the strong thermo-optic and thermal-expansion effect of the low-refractive-index PC resin. In addition, the sensor shows good stability over a period of 15 days. The local pH also influences the sensor, with the resonance wavelength shift increasing as pH approaches a value of 7 but then decreasing as the pH value increases further due to the effect of the BP layer by H+ and OH− ions. The sensor shows the potential for high-resolution detection of Pb2+ ions in a liquid environment with the particular advantages of having a simple structure, ease of fabrication, low cost, low loss, and simple interrogation.



National Key R&D Program of China; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC); Harbin Engineering University; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics