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1.4 CHEMICAL SCIENCES
Anticancer drugs are prescribed and administrated to an increasing number of patients on a daily basis. As a consequence, a number of concerns have been raised about the patient health and safety in the case that the drugs administered are not at the required concentration or even worse not the correct ones. Quality control of therapeutic solutions has therefore been extensively implemented in hospital environments, in order to avoid any failure in the intense workflow faced by administering pharmacists. In the present study, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the analysis of 3 commercially available therapeutic solutions TEVA®, MYLAN®, CERUBIDINE®, respectively containing doxorubicin, epirubicin and daunorubicin. They perfectly illustrate the analytical difficulties encountered, as these 3 chemotherapeutic drugs are isomers, hardly distinguishable with conventional approaches such as UV/VIS spectrometry. Any analytical failure to identify these molecules can lead to delays in patient treatment. While Partial Least Squares Regression analysis demonstrates that both Raman and IR can deliver satisfactory quantitative analysis in the clinical range, with respective Root Mean Square Error of Cross Validation (RMSECV) between 0.0127 – 0.0220 g·L−1 and 0.0573 – 0.0759 g·L−1, the identification rate between the 2 techniques differs substantially. Indeed, Principal Component Analysis – Factorial Discriminant Analysis (PCA-FDA) highlights that, depending on the data preprocessing applied to Raman spectra, the discrimination between the 3 drugs is decreased, with in some cases specificity and sensitivity below 50%. However, IR analysis displays encouraging results with an overall specificity and sensitivity between 99 and 100%, suggesting that reliable validation of the therapeutic solution for administration to patients can be achieved. IR and Raman spectroscopy could assist and support quality control of chemotherapeutic solutions prepared in personalised concentrations for each patient. The effective and reliable characterisation of therapeutic solutions could have a lot to offer to improve current practices in a near future.
Makki, A. et al. (2019). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of therapeutic solutions using Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol.218, pp.97-108. doi:10.1016/j.saa.2019.03.056