Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 410, 7537-7550 (2018)


The in vitro cell culture environment can impact on cell biochemistry and cell cycle. The manifestation of such substrate-induced changes in cell cycle in the Raman microspectroscopic profiles of cell cultures is investigated at the level of nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm. HeLa immortalised human cervical cells and HaCaT dermal cells were cultured on three different substrates, conventional polystyrene cell culture dishes, CaF2 slides as a commonly used Raman substrate, and glass slides coated with Collagen Rat Tail, as a mimic of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) environment. A cell cycle study, based on percentage DNA content, as determined using Propidium Iodide staining and monitored by flow cytometry, was performed on cells of both types, grown on the different substrates, confirming that the in vitro cell culture environment impacts significantly on the cell cycle. Live cell in vitro Raman spectroscopic analysis of cells on the 2D CaF2 and 3D Collagen substrates was performed and data was analysed using principal components analysis (PCA). The spectroscopic analysis revealed differences in profiles which reflect the differences in cell cycle for both in vitro culture environments. In particular, the Raman spectra of cells 2 grown on CaF2 show indicators of cell stress, which are also associated with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. This work contributes to the field of Raman spectroscopic analysis by providing a fresh look at the significance of the effect of in vitro culture environment to cell cycle and the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to such differences in cell metabolism.