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Nanotechnology Reviews, Vol. 7, No. 1.


Carbon has long been applied as an electrochemical sensing interface owing to its unique electrochemical properties. Moreover, recent advances in material design and synthesis, particularly nanomaterials, has produced robust electrochemical sensing systems that display superior analytical performance. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most extensively studied nanostructures because of their unique properties. In terms of electroanalysis, the ability of CNTs to augment the electrochemical reactivity of important biomolecules and promote electron transfer reactions of proteins is of particular interest. The remarkable sensitivity of CNTs to changes in surface conductivity due to the presence of adsorbates permits their application as highly sensitive nanoscale sensors. CNT-modified electrodes have also demonstrated their utility as anchors for biomolecules such as nucleic acids, and their ability to diminish surface fouling effects. Consequently, CNTs are highly attractive to researchers as a basis for many electrochemical sensors. Similarly, synthetic diamonds electrochemical properties, such as superior chemical inertness and biocompatibility, make it desirable both for (bio) chemical sensing and as the electrochemical interface for biological systems. This is highlighted by the recent development of multiple electrochemical diamond-based biosensors and bio interfaces.