Racialization of Muslim Students in Australia, Ireland, and the United States: Cross-Cultural Perspectives

Mel C. Brooks, School of Education, Culture, and Society, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia


Brooks, M. C., Ezzani, M. D., Sai, Y., & Sanjakdar, F. (2023). Racialization of Muslim students in Australia, Ireland and the United States: cross-cultural perspectives. Race Ethnicity and Education, 26(2), 164-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2021.1997977


The purpose of this qualitative cross-cultural case study was to better understand how Muslim students living in Australia, Ireland, and the United States navigated racism to identify ways in which school leaders and teachers can better address the structural, historical, and socioeconomic roots of racial injustice, discrimination, and ongoing oppression. Data collection was guided by a shared interview protocol that asked questions regarding family background, personal interests, identity, and friendships with a focus on their experiences of anti-Muslim racism in secondary schools. Findings suggested that Muslim students navigated racialization by (de)constructing their Muslimness, seeking voice, navigating between inclusion and exclusion, and responding to hate. This paper contributes to the bourgeoning literature exploring anti-Muslim racialization and makes a foundational empirical cross-cultural contribution with its identification of essential practices for anti-Muslim racism in schooling.