It has been lhe tradition in Europe to develop media technologies at national level with close cooperation between the state and the private sector, and frequently with competition between different states and their industrial Infrastructures. The creation of new technologies mostly occurred within lhe electric, and later the electronics industry and included studio equipment, transmitters and receivers; it also included those industries supplying equipment to areas such as telecommunications. optics and the aerospace indus try. The state has always provided some of the central players. for example, Post Office administrations (Telecoms), research ministries, the military sector and in particular, the public service broadcasters .

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