Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Medical engineering, Orthopaedics, Surgery

Publication Details

Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology


Abstract—This study evaluates high power low frequency ultrasound transmitted via a flat vibrating probe tip as an alternative technology for meniscal debridement in the bovine knee. An experimental force controlled testing rig was constructed using a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe suspended vertically from a load cell. Effect of variation in amplitude of distal tip displacement (242–494 mm peak-peak) settings and force (2.5–4.5 N) on tissue removal rate (TRR) and penetration rate (PR) for 52 bovine meniscus samples was analyzed. Temperature elevation in residual meniscus was measured by embedded thermocouples and histologic analysis. As amplitude or force increases, there is a linear increase in TRR (Mean: 0.9 to 11.2 mg/s) and PR (Mean: 0.08 to 0.73 mm/s). Maximum mean temperatures of 84.6C and 52.3C were recorded in residual tissue at 2 mm and 4 mm from the ultrasound probe-tissue interface. There is an inverse relationship between both amplitude and force, and temperature elevation, with higher settings resulting in less thermal damage. (



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