Document Type

Book Chapter


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

Book chapter in EG UK Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics.


The applications of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for Computer Generated Imagery, image processingand, in particular, image compression are well known and the DCT also forms the central kernel for a number ofdigital image watermarking methods. In this paper we consider the application of the DCT for producing a highlyrobust method of watermarking images using a block partitioning approach subject to a self-alignment strategyand bit error correction. The applications for the algorithms presented include the copyright protection of imagesand Digital Right Management for image libraries, for example. However, the principal focus of the researchreported in this paper is on the use of print-scan and e-display-scan image authentication for use in e-ticketswhere QR code, for example, are embedded in an full colour image of the ticket holder. This requires that a DCTembedding procedure is developed that is highly robust to blur, noise, geometric distortions such as rotation, shift and barrel and the partial removal of image segments, all of which are consider ed in regard to the resilience of the method proposed and its practical realisation in a real operating environment.