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Electrical and electronic engineering
A photovoltaic (PV) array can be combined with battery energy storage to satisfy the electrical demand of lightweight electric vehicles. Measured solar resource and vehicle energy consumption, together with locational, mechanical and electrical constraints were used to design a vehicle charging station comprised of a 63 m2 10.5 kW AC PV array, with a 9.6 kWh lithium-ion battery. PV output, battery charge and discharge, electricity flows were monitored over one year. Deviations between measured and calculated annual AC generation averaged to 14%. Average annual direct consumption, self-consumption and system self-sufficiency were 8.47%, 30.3% and 74.36% respectively.
Ayda Esfandyari, Brian Norton, Michael Conlon, Sarah J. McCormack, Performance of a campus photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station in a temperate climate, Solar Energy, Volume 177, 2019, Pages 762-771, ISSN 0038-092X, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2018.12.005.
Technological University Dublin