Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Electrical and electronic engineering, Communication engineering and systems

Publication Details

IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution., 2020, Vol. 14 Iss. 24, pp. 5918-5926


Transport electrification is becoming the mainstream as a means to improve efficiency, performance, andsustainability of transportation systems. Electrical vehicles (EVs) can help to de-carbonise the environment, but a downside isthe technical issues presented to the low-voltage distribution network. To quantify the stochastic nature of transport-affectedelectrification, probabilistic load flow is employed. Monte Carlo-based simulation is applied to accommodate the probabilisticuncertainties associated with variable EV charging patterns. This study considers high-power charging (up to 11 kW) at thedomestic level while monitoring power quality variations (voltage drop, voltage unbalance factor, voltage sag) standards. Thiswork focuses on the Irish and UK, distribution system operator's–transmission system operator's perspectives, as it will help toidentify the likely impacts due to high-EV charger proliferation at household locations. The results indicate that if a 3.68 kWcharger is used at the domestic level, it is possible for 40% of total household consumers to connect EVs directly to thedistribution network without any power quality breaches. Furthermore, the proliferation of EV can be increased up to 100% ifconstrained to the start, and middle portions of the network (relative to the feeder substation transformer). For higher chargercapacities (up to 11 kW), a bottleneck is presented regarding a resultant voltage unbalance factor.