Document Type

Conference Paper


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

9th World Congress on Environmental Health, Trinity College Dublin, June, 2006.


Meeting environmental requirements is recognised as one of the six 21st century business drivers for automatic control. The proportional integral (PI) and proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers are the most dominant form of automatic controllers in industrial use today. With these techniques, it is necessary to adjust the controller parameters according to the nature of the process. Thus, for effective control of a heating, cooling and air-conditioning (HVAC) application, for example, specific values need to be chosen for the P, I and D parameters, which will be different for the values required to control, for example, a distillation column. This tailoring of controller to process is known as controller tuning. Controller tuning is easily and effectively performed using tuning rules (i.e. formulae for controller tuning, based on process information). Such tuning rules allow the easy set up of controllers to achieve optimum performance at commissioning. Importantly, they allow ease of re-commissioning if the characteristics of the process change. The paper outlines the results of recent work in the collation of industry-relevant PI and PID controller tuning rules, which may be applied to a variety of applications with the aim of improving waste management.