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A time delay may be defined as the time interval between the start of an event at one point in a system and its resulting action at another point in the system. Delays are also known as transport lags or dead times; they arise in physical, chemical, biological and economic systems, as well as in the process of measurement and computation. Methods for the compensation of time delayed processes may be broadly divided into proportional integral derivative (PID) based controllers, in which the controller parameters are adapted to the controller structure, and structurally optimised controllers, in which the controller structure and parameters are adapted optimally to the structure and parameters of the process model. The purpose of this paper is to extract the essence of the developments in design, tuning and implementation of PID controllers for delayed processes over the five years 1998-2002, concentrating on journal publications. The paper will provide a framework against which the literature may be viewed.
O'Dwyer, Aidan :PID compensation of time delayed processes 1998-2002: a survey. Proceedings of the American Control Conference, pp. 1494-1499, Denver, Colorado, USA, June.