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2. ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Electrical and electronic engineering
Fractal antennas have and are continuing to receive attention in regard to the futureof wireless communications. This is because of their wide- and multi-band capabilities, theopportunity of fractal geometries to drive multiple resonances, and, the ability to make smallerand lighter antennas with fewer components and radiative elements with higher gains. Smallscale (i.e. on the micro- and nano-scale) and ultra high frequency (in the Terahertz or THz range)fractal antennas composed of Graphene have the potential to enhance wireless communicationsat a data rate that is unprecedented, i.e.∼1012bits per second. A Fractal Graphene antennais a high-frequency tuneable antenna for radio communications in the THz spectrum, enablingunique applications such as wireless nano-networks. This is because (mono-layer) Grapheneis a one-atom-thick two-dimensional allotrope of Carbon with the highest known electricalconductivity that is currently unavailable in any other material, including metals such as Goldand Silver. Thus, combining the properties of Graphene with the self-affine characteristics ofa fractal at the micro- and nano-scale, provides the potential to revolutionise communications,at least in the near field (the order of a few metres) for low power systems. In this paper, weconsider the basic physics and some of the principle mathematical models associated with thedevelopment of this new disruptive technology in order to provide a guide to those engagedin current and future research, a fractal Graphene antenna being an example of an advancedmaterial for demanding applications. This includes some example simulations on the THz fieldpatterns generated by a fractal patch antenna composed of Graphene whose conductivity istaken to scale with the inverse of the frequency according to a ‘Drude’ model. The approachto generating THz sources using Graphene is also explored based on Infrared laser pumping toinduce a THz photo-current.
J M Blackledge, A Boretti, L Rosa and S Castelletto, "Fractal Graphene Patch Antennas and the THz Communications Revolution", Advanced Materials & Demanding Applications 2020 (AMDA 2020), IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1060, 012001, IOP Publishing, 2021. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1060/1/012001