Document Type

Conference Paper


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Construction engineering

Publication Details

EuroDyn Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 2011


The characteristic vertical vibration of a flexible footbridge subject to crowd loading is examined in this paper. Typically, bridge vibrations produced from a crowd of pedestrians are estimated by using an enhancement factor applied to the effect caused by a single pedestrian. In this paper, a single pedestrian model, represented by a spring mass damper, which incorporates variables such as pedestrian mass and body stiffness, is used to calibrate a computationally efficient moving force model. This calibrated moving force model is further used in Monte Carlo simulations of non-homogenous crowds to estimate characteristic vertical vibration levels. Enhancement factors, which could be applied to simple single pedestrian moving force models in estimating the response due to a crowd are thus derived. Such enhancement factors are then compared to previously published values. It is found that the greatest difference between the spring mass damper and moving force models respectively occurs when the bridge frequency is at the mean crowd pacing frequency. For bridges with frequencies even slightly removed from this mean, moving force models appear adequate.



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