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The presence of chloride ions is one of the primary factors causing the degradation of reinforced concrete structures. An investigation to monitor ingress of chlorides during a 24-week wetting and drying exposure regime to simulate conditions in which multiple-mode transport mechanisms are active was conducted on a variety of binders. Penetration was evaluated using free and total chloride profiles. Acid extraction of chlorides is quantitatively reliable and practical for assessing penetration. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the presence of bound chlorides and carbonation. The ability of the cement blends to resist chloride penetration was, from best to worst, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, microsilica, pulverised-fuel ash, Portland cement. The effect of carbonation on binding capability was observed and the relative quantity of chlorides also showed a correlation with the amount of chlorides bound in the form of Friedel’s salt.
Backus, J. et al. Exposure of mortars to cyclic chloride ingress and carbonation. Advances in cement research, Vol. 25, Issue 1. 2013. doi:10.1680/adcr.12.00029