Document Type



This item is available under a Creative Commons License for non-commercial use only


2. ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Construction engineering

Publication Details

Energy & Buildings, vol. 215, 15th May, 2020.


Average reference dwellings representing a predominant housing typology are defined in this work. Specifying such reference buildings is a prerequisite for (i) calculating cost-optimal energy performance requirements for buildings and building elements and (ii) ensuring valid calculations of national building energy consumption. In the EU, an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating is an assessment of the energy consumption of a dwelling. The use of inappropriate default-values for the building envelope thermal transmittance coefficients (U-values) and standardised thermal bridging transmittance coefficients (Y-values) in the production of EPCs leads to an over-estimation of potential energy savings from interventions in the existing dwelling stock.


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