Document Type



Polymer science, Materials engineering, Ceramics

Publication Details

Brendan M. Kennedy, Eamonn De Barra, Stuart Hampshire, Maura C. Kelleher, Investigation of oleic acid as a dispersant for hydroxyapatite powders for use in ceramic filled photo-curable resins for stereolithography, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 43, Issue 15, 2023, Pages 7146-7166.


Stereolithography allows production of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone regeneration but is limited by the challenging rheology of ceramic filled resins. Oleic acid, a natural fatty acid, was applied in concentrations of 0.0–0.3 wt% to improve the rheological properties of HAp resins for the fabrication of solid cylinders and scaffolds by digital light processing (DLP) printing in a wiperless system. Bonding by chemisorption was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The powders were then incorporated into a photo-curable resin of 1–6 hexanediol diacrylate at 18–30 vol%. The shear viscosity and sedimentation rates of photocurable resins containing HAp powder decreased with increasing concentration of oleic acid. The curing depth and width of resins containing the HAp were unchanged as a result of the presence of oleic acid. Oleic acid improved the printing behaviour of the resins allowing the fabrication of scaffolds with continuous macro-porosity on a wiperless DLP system.



This work was funded by the Technological University Dublin Fiosraigh PhD scholarship program. We wish to thank Henkel AG & Co. KGaA Ireland for granting access to use their viscometers.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.