Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Applied mathematics, Statistics, Probability, Electrical and electronic engineering, Energy and fuels

Publication Details

Energy and Buildings. 2012.

ISSN 0378-7788.


This paper examines the influence of dwelling and occupant characteristics on domestic electricity consumption patterns by analysing data obtained from a smart metering survey of a representative cross section of approximately 4,200 domestic Irish dwellings. A multiple linear regression model was applied to four parameters: total electricity consumption, maximum demand, load factor and time of use (ToU) of maximum electricity demand for a number of different dwelling and occupant socio-economic variables. In particular, dwelling type, number of bedrooms, head of household (HoH) age, household composition, social class, water heating and cooking type all had a significant influence over total domestic electricity consumption. Maximum electricity demand was significantly influenced by household composition as well as water heating and cooking type. A strong relationship also existed between maximum demand and most household appliances but, in particular, tumble dryers, dishwashers and electric cookers had the greatest influence over this parameter. Time of use (ToU) for maximum electricity demand was found to be strongly influenced by occupant characteristics, HoH age and household composition. Younger head of households were more inclined to use electricity later in the evening than older occupants. The appliance that showed the greatest potential for shifting demand away from peak time use was the dishwasher.