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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence




Stroke is an example of a complex and multi-factorial disease involving multiple organs, timescales, and disease mechanisms. To deal with this complexity, and to realize Precision Medicine of stroke, mathematical models are needed. Such approaches include: 1) machine learning, 2) bioinformatic network models, and 3) mechanistic models. Since these three approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses, a hybrid modelling approach combining them would be the most beneficial. However, no concrete approach ready to be implemented for a specific disease has been presented to date. In this paper, we both review the strengths and weaknesses of the three approaches, and propose a roadmap for hybrid modelling in the case of stroke care. We focus on two main tasks needed for the clinical setting: a) For stroke risk calculation, we propose a new two-step approach, where non-linear mixed effects models and bioinformatic network models yield biomarkers which are used as input to a machine learning model and b) For simulation of care scenarios, we propose a new four-step approach, which revolves around iterations between simulations of the mechanistic models and imputations of non-modelled or non-measured variables. We illustrate and discuss the different approaches in the context of Precision Medicine for stroke.