Document Type



1.4 CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Physical chemistry, Food and beverages


Vitamin K1 (VitK1) and Vitamin K2 (VitK2), two important naturally occurring micronutrients in the VitK family, found, respectively, in green leafy plants and algae (VitK1) and animal and fermented foods (VitK2). The present review explores the multiple biological functions of VitK2 from recently published in vitro and in vivo studies, including promotion of osteogenesis, prevention of calcification, relief of menopausal symptoms, enhancement of mitochondrial energy release, hepato-and neuro-protective effects, and possible use in treatment of coronavirus disease. The mechanisms of action associated with these biological effects are also explored. Overall, the findings presented here suggest that VitK, especially VitK2, is an important nutrient family for the normal functioning of human health. It acts on almost all major body systems and directly or indirectly participates in and regulates hundreds of physiological or pathological processes. However, as biological and clinical data are still inconsistent and conflicting, more in-depth investigations are warranted to elucidate its potential as a therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat a range of disease conditions.



This research received no external funding

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.