Download Full Text (512 KB)


Technological University Dublin


Gendered language refers to the use of words that indicate the gender of an individual. It can be explicit, where the gender is directly implied by the specific words used (e.g., mother, she, man), or it can be implicit, where societal roles and behaviors convey a person's gender. For example, expectations that women display communal traits (e.g., affectionate, caring, gentle) and men display agentic traits (e.g., assertive, competitive, decisive). The presence of gendered language in natural language processing (NLP) systems can reinforce gender stereotypes and bias. Our work introduces an approach to creating gendered language datasets using ChatGPT. These datasets are designed to support data-driven methods for identifying gender stereotypes and mitigating gender bias. The approach focuses on generating implicit gendered language that captures and reflects stereotypical characteristics or traits associated with a specific gender. This is achieved by constructing prompts for ChatGPT that incorporate gender-coded words sourced from gender-coded lexicons. The evaluation of the datasets generated demonstrates good examples of English-language gendered sentences that can be categorized as either contradictory to or consistent with gender stereotypes. Additionally, the generated data exhibits a strong gender bias.

Publication Date



gendered language, gendered language dataset, gender stereotype detection, gender bias mitigation, natural language processing, chatgpt, implicit gender stereotypes


Computer Sciences | Other Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies


First Annual Teaching and Research Showcase 2023


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

Identifying Gendered Language



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.