Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 373-390


Marketing practice varies among firms. However, the prescriptive literature emphasises a universal view of practice, a “one-size-fits-all” view. This paper addresses the issue of explaining diversity in competitive space and over time. Diversity in competitive space reflects the existence of different routes to high performance. Diversity over time reflects some combination of change in the individual firm and change in a population of firms. In the former case, diversity is shaped by organisational change; in the latter by the disbandment and founding of firms in the population. Miles and Snow’s typology is taken as a main point of departure in the search for explanation, and ecological and evolutionary concepts are also drawn upon. The paper starts by examining the discussion of diversity in the literature of strategic management and organisation theory, and then finds evidence of an emerging interest in diversity in the domain of marketing. Based on a number of cross-sectional and longitudinal case studies, it proceeds to explore diversity in company marketing practice. How such variety evolves at industry level is then addressed. Finally, a view of industries as business systems with complex adaptive mechanisms, enabling both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in marketing practice, is offered.


Included in

Business Commons