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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence



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Dissertation submitted to the School of Transport Engineering, Environment and Planning Management, Technological University of Dublin, City Campus, in fulfilment of the requirements leading to the award of Master of Science in Sustainable Transport and Mobility, December 2021.


Transport plays a key role in maintaining the economic prosperity of our society. However, transport has remained reliant on fossil fuels, a main contributor to climate change. New EU and Government policies aim to decarbonise the transport sector through batteryfication by shifting to electric vehicles. The lithium-ion battery will underpin this strategy.

Lithium-ion batteries have a limited lifespan for automotive applications, this will bring new and unprecedented challenges for end-of-life waste management. The recent growth of electric vehicles is expected to continue exponentially which raises important questions on how to process this new waste stream.

This study investigates the recycling value chain surrounding end-of-life electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries and will highlight best practices of the pre-recycling phases of; safety, disassembly, storage, and transportation which will take place in Ireland.

The findings show that lithium-ion battery waste management is a highly complex field with many different strands still in its infancy. Proposed legislation and production plants will allow the EU to obtain a circular battery value chain in the near future. While Irish stakeholders interviewed are currently readying themselves to manage this emerging technology, many different approaches are being taken.

The author concludes that to reduce the possibility of a serious accident occurring, electric vehicle stakeholders in conjunction with the National Standards Authority of Ireland should develop a standard for operatives working directly on these vehicles. This standard should be compulsory through a statutory regulatory scheme or legislation.