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"Formulation, characterisation and stability assessment of a food derived tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline loaded chitosan nanoparticles", Minna K. Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh J. Byrne, Jesus M. Frias, Sinéad M. Ryan, Journal of Food Science: Food Engineering, Materials Science, and Nanotechnology, June (2017) DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13824


The chicken or fish derived tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline (LKP), inhibits the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and may be used as an alternative treatment for pre-hypertension. However, it has low permeation across the small intestine. The formulation of LKP into a nanoparticle (NP) has the potential to address this issue. LKP-loaded NPs were produced using an ionotropic gelation technique, using chitosan (CL113). Following optimisation of unloaded NPs, a mixture amount design was constructed using variable concentration of CL113 and tripolyphosphate at a fixed LKP concentration. Resultant particle sizes ranged from 120-271 nm, zeta potential values from 29-37 mV and polydispersity values from 0.3-0.6. A ratio of 6:1 (CL113: TPP) produced the best encapsulation of approximately 65%. Accelerated studies of the loaded nanoparticles indicated stability under normal storage conditions (room temperature). Cytotoxicity assessment showed no significant loss of cell viability and in vitro release studies indicated an initial burst followed by a slower and sustained release.