Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Urban studies (Planning and development), Social sciences, Interdisciplinary

Publication Details

Open Journal of Social Science


Studies show that within most countries, there are generally many different socio-cultural, ethnic and religious groups and this diversity inevitably creates a level of inter-group tension, with income disparities, cultural differences, and intergroup segregation leading in turn to social exclusion. This paper sets out to develop a conceptual framework to examine the relationship between that participation and the social inclusion outcomes in the plan-making process. It addresses how social inclusion can relate to the plan-making process culturally, politically and institutionally, economically and socially with high level participation. In doing this, it adopts a case study approach using the Metropolitan Area of Abuja, the capital of Nigeria as the study sample of multi-ethnic, cultural and religious area. The research finds that participation in the plan-making process has a direct impact on social inclusion outcomes, helping to: break down cultural barriers; create intergroup cohesion; alleviate poverty; increase economic opportunities; and promote good governance. It finds that the relationship between participation and social inclusion varies across different indicators of social inclusion. It shows a very strong or moderately strong relationship across different indicators. However, the significance of relationship is very strong across all the indicators.