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Ocean and Coastal Management, 2018


The implementation of Directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE can improve and actually strengthen the informationmanagement and data infrastructures needed for setting up Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) processes. Evidencefor this comes from three parallel analyses: links between the MSP Framework Directive and INSPIRE compo-nents and implementation; the availability of marine and maritime data through the INSPIRE Geo-Portal; andthe adequacy of using an INSPIRE data model for mapping maritime spatial plans. Thefirst item identifiesINSPIRE as a relevant instrument not only for data collection, but additionally for increasing transparency of theMSP processes, using already operational national and European data infrastructure. The marine/maritime dataavailability analysis highlights a significant difference in data sharing within European marine regions. Finally,the INSPIRE data model is adequate for mapping maritime activities and for the integration of sea and landplanning in an overview of cross-border planning for a given sea region.Please checkAppendix 2for definitions of the terminology used.1. IntroductionAncient sea maps have been traditionally populated by giant ser-pents and octopuses wrapped around ships,fierce-toothed animalsclashing in the waves, deceivingly beautiful mermaids and a variety ofother chimeric beings.1European map makers used such monstrositiesto enchant viewers, but also to educate them about the dangers of themarine environment, dangers that could obstruct maritime activitieslike shipping,fishing or traveling. Sea monsters were not just mereplayful illustrations, they were symbols trying to describe the maintraits of a bizarre territory, made of a treacherous liquid element, anddifficult to chart because of its featureless, and yet dynamical, nature(Ellis, 1994).Sea monsters started to disappear from maritime maps at the end ofthe 17th century. As European understanding of the oceans and navi-gation advanced, more emphasis was placed on the ability of people tomaster the watery element, to sail on it and conduct trade on it.Illustrations still appeared on maps, but for more pragmatic reasons:drawings of ships indicated areas of safe passage, while whales or othercreatures pointed to goodfishing areas (Bagrow, 2010). Some of themystery was now gone and the sea was becoming yet another cradle ofnatural resources, rather than a churning darkness to be feared. How-ever, the sense of awe captured in the old maps lingers on, to this veryday, as many dangers and obstacles to maritime endeavours are stillwith us.Modern maps of marine regions are free of sea monsters, but dopoint to a set of problems which are difficult to solve. Today, the mainobstacle to human activities at sea is primarily competition for mar-itime space. Moreover, an increasing hunger for the many resources stillavailable in the sea is placing a heavy burden on the preservation of themarine ecological balance. A management effort is required (IOC, 2006;Ardron et al., 2008; Day, 2008; Douvere and Ehler, 2009; EC, 2010)toavoid potential conflicts and create synergies between different activ-ities (Suarez de Vivero and Rodriguez Mateos, 2012; Brennan et al., 1 September 2016; Received in revised form 14 November 2017; Accepted 14 November 2017∗Corresponding author.E-mail Abramic).1Seee.g. Olaus Magnus,Carta marina et Descriptio septemtrionalium terrarum ac mirabilium rerum in eis contentarum, diligentissime elaborata Annon Domini 1539 Veneciis liberal itateReverendissimi Domini Ieronimi Quirini, published in Venezia (Venice?), 1539.Ocean and Coastal Management 152 (2018) 23–36Available online 14 December 20170964-5691/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.T