Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Construction engineering


The measurement of substructure works to simple domestic type buildings is a logical starting point for students to commence the process of taking-off building quantities. Substructure work is typically the first class of work to be explained in textbooks dealing with both construction technology and building measurement. However, substructure work is often one of the most challenging elements to measure. In this paper, the author demonstrates the process of measuring basic substructure designs. The approach involves providing solutions to a sample of four Irish Department of Education Technological Certificate: Builders’ Quantities Intermediate Stage examinations. The intention is to demonstrate how descriptions, dimensions and the supporting ‘waste calculations’ and annotations may be effectively presented. The worked examples are measured in accordance with the Irish Agreed Rules of Measurement (ARM4) and are arranged in order of increasing difficulty as the plans become more complex.

This study is primarily addressed to Irish students undertaking undergraduate and conversion masters courses in quantity surveying and construction management disciplines. The discussion and worked examples aim to help students to develop sound measurement skills and enable them to apply the various principles in their day-to-day practice.