Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Construction engineering

Publication Details

Review presented to Dublin Institute of Technology 2013.


Variations are almost inevitable on all but the most simple of building contracts. This review examines the topic of variations in the context of the ‘traditionally’ procured building contracts in the Republic of Ireland. The study presents definitions of variations as set out in various contracts including the RIAI and GCCC Forms of Contract and identifies common sources of variations on building projects. The study sets out the legal framework supporting the right to vary work, establishes the nature of varied and/or extra work, and discusses the requirements for payment of such work. Variation procedures under the RIAI and GCCC Forms of Contract are discussed, focusing on the power of the architect and employer’s representative to issue instructions and variations. The study then considers the valuation rules contained in both contracts and comments on various issues connected with their valuation methodologies.

The study is intended as an aid to Irish students undertaking undergraduate and conversion masters courses in quantity surveying and construction management related disciplines.