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A reconfigurable microstrip antenna is proposed for low-cost adaptive beam-switching applications. A small patch-slot-ring structure is used as the radiating element where an asymmetrical arrangement of p-i-n diodes is employed to switch the pattern in four directions. The antenna provides pattern switching of 65° and 45° in its fundamental mode for the elevation and azimuth planes, respectively. By maintaining the resonant frequency and beamwidth as relatively constant, beam switching is realized using a single feed point.
Nair,S., Ammann, M. (2010) Reconfigurable Antenna with Elevation and Azimuth Beam Switching. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol.9, 2010, pp367-370. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2010.2049332