Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Electrical and electronic engineering

Publication Details

IEEE Access


The broadband five-port refectometer (FPR) is proposed using a triple-ring based technique. The design introduces a tapering in the inter-ring transmission lines (TLs), which provides additional degrees of freedom for optimization and contributes to increased bandwidth. The miniaturization strategy allows incorporating the third ring without signifcant size increase. In addition, a method for expressing the effective physical dimension of a planar symmetric FPR is also presented in an easily comprehensible way, which can be implemented for other symmetric planar junctions with more than four ports. The proposed design comprises three concentric rings with phase-shifting arrangements between the inter-ring TLs and outer matching arm sections. Inter-ring TLs are shifted by 36 degrees(half factorized value of the inter-port angular distance of 72 degrees) in three different optimizing steps. Tapered TLs have been used between two consecutive rings to achieve very wide bandwidth of at least 88% in simulations and at least 85% in measurements.



CREST Fund under Grant P12C2-17, Grant FRGS/1/2017/TK03/UMP/02/1, Grant PRGS/1/2018/ICT06/UNIMAP/02/5, and Grant MOHE FRGS/1/2017/STG02/UNIMAP/02/2, in part by the Marie Skªodowska-Curie under Grant 713567, and in part by the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant 13/RC/2077