Document Type

Book Chapter


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Journalism, Media and socio-cultural communication

Publication Details

Rafter, Kevin (ed) (2011) Irish Journalism Before Independence: More a Disease than a Profession. Kevin Rafter (ed)Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK.


Newspaper developed in Ireland as a political press, with each publication clearly identified with particular political groupings. However, for reasons of economics journalism itself developed a professional paradign, that stressed impartiality, so allowing journalists to move from publication to publication regardless of the politics or religion of the journalist. Newspapers and journalists also helped develop a civil society that contributed to the eventual democratic nature of the Irish state, following independence.